We can investigate marine clouds using satellite observations. Figure 1 shows the correlation between satellite cloud optical thickness (COT) and model surface wind speed (U10m), obtained in the sub-arctic marine atmosphere over the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea (this area is shown in figure 2). The movement of marine air masses, before they arrive in the area being investigated, are represented by the light solid lines in figure 2. The relationship shown in figure 1 allows a very simple but powerful way to incorporate climate forcing in model predictions, and highlight how marine sea-spray influences COT and the way that it affects the global climate.

We will evaluate results from these optical property measurements on low-level clouds, as well as on estimated cloud-droplet numbers, based on model simulations. To this end, a process model will be developed that can accurately handle both predictions of vertical mixing of water vapour and clouds, together with the number of sea-salt particles – which are greatly affected by wind speeds – and descriptions of gas-phase chemistry and aerosol-cloud interactions.